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Czech Value Added Tax (VAT): What you need to know for ICA’s 68th Annual Conference in Prague

Posted By Tolu Ilupeju, Friday, February 2, 2018

Question:  Why does ICA’s conference pricing seem higher this year?

Answer:  Conference pricing was unchanged from 2017; the prices of conference registration are exactly the same as they were for San Diego.  That said, because the conference is located in an EU member country -  it is subject to a Czech Value-Added Tax (VAT), an added fee in 2018. ICA does not receive any of this money; it is paid to the Czech government.

It’s the law in the European Union (EU). All Registration fees are subject to 21% Czech Value Added Tax (VAT) according to article §10b of Act No. 235/2004 Coll. A Value-Added Tax (VAT) is required by the laws and regulations of the European Union (EU) and its member states. They establish that VAT must be paid on the fees in the country where the meeting is held.

Do I submit my ICA issued invoice or receipt to recover VAT?  No! The proforma invoice and emailed receipt ICA issues to confirm your conference registration are NOT a valid VAT receipt, they should not be submitted.

How do I get a VAT receipt to apply to recover VAT?   To provide this service, ICA has partnered with a VAT consultant company, VMC, that specializes in managing and recovering VAT for association events hosted by organizations hosting conferences in the EU. The VAT invoice for your participation will be sent from VMC to you directly, via email, after you receive your ICA proforma invoice. It will be issued by the company: VMC, 1 Rond-point de l’Europe, 92250 LA GARENNE COLOMBES, France; French VAT Number: FR75523098614; Czech VAT Number: CZ682761770.

VAT exempted in France under article 259 A 5° a. of the French CGI. Subject to Czech VAT according to article §10b of Act No. 235/2004 Coll.

When will I receive my VAT invoice? 

ICA will report to VMC monthly, they will use our report to generate and send VAT invoices directly to you, via email.  The anticipated turnaround is quick, generally 2-4 days after we send VMC our report.  Depending on when you register, and where we are in our monthly reporting cycle, it could take up to approximately 30 days to receive your invoice; however in most cases it should be delivered more quickly.


FAQs about VAT:  Frequently Asked Questions about Czech Value-Added Tax:

  1. Why am I paying a VAT on the Meeting Registration Fee? You are paying a Value-Added Tax (VAT) on the registration fee because it is required by the laws and regulations of the EU and its member states. They establish that VAT must be paid on fees in the country where the meeting is held. 
  2. Can the VAT be recovered? Possibly. Only companies from the European Union and from Switzerland, Norway, and Macedonia can claim back the Czech VAT. To recover the VAT you must provide the details of your company - name, address, VAT number or Tax ID - for all expense invoices and submit all original documentation to your company for its processing.  Pay attention that the VAT refund on certain expenses like travel expenses, accommodation, meals or goods and services for personal consumption are not accepted by the Czech Tax Administration. 
  3. Does “company” include “university”?  Possibly.  If the university has the status of taxable person, then yes, it is considered as a company. Most universities in Europe choose to have the status of taxable person.
  4. What process should companies follow to recover the VAT?
  • EU Companies: EU companies must contact the Tax Administration of their own country for instructions regarding the conditions and process to follow for reclaiming the Czech VAT. There are also minimum VAT amounts that must be met.

For the refund applications for one to three quarters by an EU company the minimum amount is €400. If the refund application relates to a refund period of a calendar year or the remainder of a calendar year, the amount of VAT may not be less than €50. For conversion of EURO currency into the CZK currency it must be used the exchange rate mentioned by the Czech National Bank for the first working day in January of the year for which the application is submitted. Please note that these amounts refer to ALL the VAT from the expenses incurred FROM ALL ITS EMPLOYEES in the Czech Republic for this meeting and any other business-related VAT incurred in the Czech Republic.


  • Non-European Companies: The Non-European companies must send the VAT refund application directly to Finanční úřad pro Prahu 1 (Local Tax Office for Prague 1) at the address below and make sure their application is received at the latest by 30 June of the following year.  There are also minimum VAT amounts that must be met.

Finanční úřad pro hlavní město Praha
Územní pracoviště pro Prahu 1
Štěpánská 28
112 33, Praha 1
Czech Republic

Tel: +420 224 041 111
Fax: +420 224 043 198


Additional details about VAT: The VAT refund must be at least CZK 7,000, unless the refund period is the calendar year or the last period of the calendar year. The refund for these refund periods must be at least CZK 1,000. Please note that these amounts refer to ALL the VAT from the expenses incurred FROM ALL ITS EMPLOYEES in the Czech Republic for this meeting and any other business-related VAT incurred in the Czech Republic.


You can find the form here, that must be completed and presented with the application. The application for VAT refund must be supported by the relevant invoices and a Certification that the applicant is a taxable person registered for VAT or similar taxes issued by the tax authority from the country of his establishment.

Tags:  January-February 2018 

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​Take in the History and Architecture of Prague: special curated communication-field tours offered this year

Posted By Tolu Ilupeju, Friday, February 2, 2018

Laura Sawyer, Executive Director

ICA members have been excited about the Prague 2018 conference ever since the location was selected over seven years ago. The capital city of the Czech Republic (also known as Czechia, still a point of controversy among some), Prague is bisected by the Vltava River. Known for its castles and Gothic churches among other breathtaking architectural artifacts, its Old Town Square, and the Astronomical Clock*, Prague also doesn’t shy away from being known as a great place to have a beer or two.


How to book:

As always, ICA has contracted with a local-expert tour company to curate a collection of ICA-specific tours for our attendees, along with the usual tourism fare. ICA no longer serves as a middleman for booking the tours, so attendees can book directly with the tour agency either online via the ICA tours website or, during the conference, by talking to the ITC tours representative who will be available at a desk in the lower lobby of the Prague Hilton, near the ICA registration desk. Please note that we expect many of these tours to sell out, so if there’s something you’re set on, we recommend you book online in advance.

Curated tours: Radio Free Europe, Parliament, Czech press agency, and more

Curated tours related to the field of communication and created just for ICA include visits to the Czech press agency; to a movie dubbing studio where western films are dubbed into Czech; to a newspaper publisher; to Radio Free Europe; to an historic theatre; to the Czech Parliament; and a presentation in the Václav Havel library on Havel’s rise “from dissident to president.”

Standard tours: Castles, Concerts, and (of course) Beer!

We also will offer standard tours that you could theoretically get elsewhere, with the added benefit that ours will pick you up right at the Hilton Prague hotel and return you at the end, and you will be among your colleagues (you might see this as a good or bad thing depending on the day!). Standard tours include visits to a Silver Mining Town, The Pilsen Pilsner Urquell brewery, a river cruise, Karlstejn Castle, Prague Castle, the Strahov Library with a mini concert, a Soprano & Tenor concert followed by a ‘beer party’ at a brewery, and a glass blowing studio. Most of these tours include meals and guides.

Holocaust Remembrance

We are honored to offer two very special tours highlighting Prague’s history relative to the second World War. On Friday, a morning tour will visit the Prague Jewish Quarter and the Old Town, with a tour guide knowledgeable in the area. On Monday, 28th May, we will host a tour to Terezin Concentration Camp, with a survivor of the holocaust who will provide commentary and, our guide tells us, is always happy to entertain questions from the group.

Multi-Day Trips in the Region

Lastly, ITC will offer three multi-day tours including lodging and transport and some meals. A tour to South Bohemia and Salzburg focuses on Mozart and Medieval Smuggling Routes. Tour 2 to Vienna and South Moravia includes several castles and gardens and the birthplace of Sigmund Freud. Finally, the Via Carolina tour includes Prague, Pilsen, Nuremberg, Heidelberg, Strasbourg, Basel, and Zurich.

Please make a point of booking early, especially for the multi-day tours, as some tours may be canceled if they haven’t met their minimums by mid-April.

*The Astronomical Clock is being taken down for restorations and will not be on view during our conference dates! Our ICA 2018 conference logo is an homage to the missing clock.


Tags:  January-February 2018 

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Travel Grant Applications for Accepted Paper Submitters Due 1 March

Posted By Tolu Ilupeju, Friday, February 2, 2018

Participants from developing/transitional countries and students from U.S. ethnic minority groups who have been accepted to present papers can apply for travel grants to the ICA Conference in Prague between 17 January and 1 March 2018. The travel-grant application is available online at

Developing/transitional countries are identified annually by the United Nations. Potential applicants should check the country tier chart on the travel grant application to determine whether they are eligible to receive a travel grant. Countries that appear in Tiers B and C qualify as developing/transitional countries. Note that ICA determines eligibility based on country of residence,not of origin. You must be an ICA member to apply.

Potential applicants should also contact their Division or Interest Group Chair for possible funding from the divisional Annenberg travel grant. Of the US$20,000 allocated by ICA for student travel grants, US$6,000 will be held aside for Divisions/Interest Groups. Up to US$300 for each Division/Interest Group will be available from the US$6,000 to match travel allocations to their student members. Conference Program Chair Patricia Moy (U ofWashington) and Executive Director Laura Sawyer (ICA) will review the applications provided through the online application form. From the remaining US$14,000, they will use their discretion(considering the general distance of travel to the conference,etc.) in providing up to US$500 for qualifying applicants. Applicants will be notified by 1 April. Additionally, each Division and Interest Group may award travel grants to students selected for top paper or other honors. Applicants will receive notification of the results by 2 April.

ICA travel grants will be available at the conference registration desk on Friday, 24 May 2018. Divisional paper awards and Annenberg travel grant awards will be delivered in the awarding Division or Interest Group business meeting.

Recipients must pick up their checks at conference registration with a form of identification. Any unused funds will be added to the amount available for 2018.

While the amount of the grants depends on actual travel costs,the overall availability of funds is limited. A US$5 surcharge on each conference registration and other available funds finance these grants.

Tags:  January-February 2018 

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Exploring the Future of Communication in India and Beyond: ICA’s Regional Conference in Mumbai

Posted By Tolu Ilupeju, Thursday, February 1, 2018
Updated: Monday, February 5, 2018

Colin Agur (U ofMinnesota)

Chair of the ICA Mobile Communication Interest Group

For three days in mid-December, Mumbai was the site of an ICA regional conference that brought together scholars from across India and other regions of the world, and highlighted the importance of India as a site for research about media and communication.

Hosted by S.N.D.T. Women’s University, this conference marked ICA’s first major gathering on the Indian Subcontinent. Befitting the significance of the event, three former ICA Presidents Ang Peng Hwa, Peter Vorderer, and Francois Heinderyckx attended and played active roles throughout the conference. Participants came from universities across Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and the Americas, making this event both distinctly Indian and international. The Mumbai conference followed recent ICA regional conferences in Entebbe (2017), Nairobi (2016), and Kuala Lumpur (2016).

The goal of this conference was threefold: to highlight the significance of media and communication research in India and, to promote new engagement among scholars in attendance, and to continue ICA efforts to build a worldwide community of communication scholars.


The host city provided an exciting backdrop for the gathering. In her welcome message, Prof. Shashikala Wanjari, Vice Chancellor of S.N.D.T. Women’s University, drew attention to Mumbai’s status as a powerhouse of finance, media, film, and fashion. This was further highlighted by a letter sent to the conference by actor Amitabh Bachchan, emphasizing the changes he has witnessed in media and technology, and the social questions that researchers must consider in the years to come.

The conference program offered a wide-ranging set of discussions about media and communication research in India. For specialists in Indian media and communication, there were sessions discussing the ways different age groups participate on social media, the development of new digital audiences, how children use digital media, public opinion and digital activism, institutional formation and evolution, the changing landscape of media companies, political rhetoric and social change, and changes in the political economy in Indian media.

For scholars interested in comparisons with other countries and regions, there were presentations on topics as varied as Korean pop music, regional identity and representation on mass media, gender in different social and developmental contexts, digital methods in communication and media studies, and future directions in the digital media ecology.

One theme running through these conference sessions was the importance of mobile communication, both as an inescapable feature of contemporary life and as a set of questions for researchers. When researchers discussed social media, digital activism, and interpersonal relations, mobile communication played an outsized role. Questions of norms, ethics, data, user rights, and regulation all inevitably touched on mobile devices, which now number more than a billion in India alone. India has emerged as of the world’s largest markets, a center for innovation in technology and related services, and the site of significant research in how people use mobile phones in their daily lives.

And for scholars of many other communication subfields, India has much to offer as a place to study, learn, and conduct research. It is home to a thriving multilingual media sector, a complex set of social, cultural, and linguistic forces shaping communication norms, and contemporary questions of media governance, access, control, ethics, and transparency. For those who have followed India for some years, this conference provided a welcome update on all manner of communication phenomena and research in the country. For others making their first trip to the country, the ICA regional conference in Mumbai served as an introduction to the rich and lively communication discourse that exists in India, and to the warm welcome that its universities offer visiting scholars.

Thanks to Mira Desai and her organizing team, and to S.N.D.T Women’s University and the conference volunteers for making this event happen.







Tags:  January-February 2018 

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President's Message

Posted By Paula Gardner , Thursday, February 1, 2018

ICA newsletter February 2018

 Paula Gardner

 As a digital media scholar, I am always interested in how we can use digital media to engage in rigorous dialogue and communication across our organization, taking on the span time/space restrictions and other limitations of virtual communication platforms.  We have taken on this challenge recently, as the ICA BOD voted to migrate our annual face-to-face January board meeting to other structures and processes in order to save expenses. Incidentally, we moved some of these savings directly to division and interest group budgets so that members benefit directly.  We have put in place a range of communication and participatory mechanisms by which the EC and Board can engage in enhanced exchange, dialogue and team work, throughout the year, rather than situating engagement primarily on two annual face to face meetings. As well, we have migrated our January board meeting to other venues and made our meetings more frequent; this includes the option of an online virtual meeting every other month with the EC for intensive conversation, or where board members can field ideas, share comments and make recommendations.  In addition, our face to face meeting has been migrated to extra hours appended onto our board meeting at the annual conference.  Finally, our superlative ICA staff is writing our first ever “on boarding” manual explaining the role and objective of various ICA organizational positions, including Division positions, as a material, sustaining information resource.  We have also added special meet and greet sessions at the Prague conference so that ICA representatives can make personal, social connections and networks, and share best practices with newcomer reps.


There is much work being done particularly by divisions and ICA leaders in a range of working groups and task forces, which is being supported by some of these new practices. The work of these task forces is worth looking into, as the recommended changes could alter the organizations practices in a number of ways.  I mentioned in a post San Diego column, for example, that we had launched a Task Force on Ethical Considerations to review and consider altering our Mission statement, which houses our ethics statement.  As well, the Sponsorship Task Force has been working the past two years to scratch out a policy on sponsorship guidelines.  A professional development Task Force was created to meet increasingly needs voiced by ICA members, particularly from less represented regions and our emerging scholars; those members seek training in research and publication, mentorship, leadership and more.   The Task Force on Divisions and Interest Groups became a standing committee, looking after your interests and sharing best practices for conducting your work. These reports from our hard-working, expert teams, will be issued in April to Division Chairs; you, as members, are welcome to review and provide feedback to your Chair on these reports. 


Meeting face to face has a range of benefits that can’t be disputed- they help us to forge trust and social bonds and build community. We will look forward to that face time in Prague. In the meantime, we are hoping that we will enhance deliberation and dialogue between the Board and EC, and across ICA by utilizing a range of tools- teleconferencing, monthly newsletters, extra face to face opportunities at the annual meeting, digital document sharing, and more.  Sometimes too we go analogue and just pick up the phone and call members seeking input and advisement. So don’t be surprised if you hear from someone at some point— via old or new tools— in this effort to keep us all engaged in our ICA’s important work.  


Tags:  January-February 2018 

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President's Message

Posted By Paula Gardner, ICA Presdient (McMaster U), Monday, December 4, 2017

We have just completed our annual ICA elections and you will note a great number of new members taking positions in ICA as Division Chairs and Vice Chairs, Divisional Secretaries, Student Representatives, and of course a new ICA President-Elect-Select. Congratulations to all members who threw their hats in the ring and to those who were elected.  We would not be a vibrant organization without the commitment and engagement of those willing to run for leadership positions out of a shared conviction that ICA should be a strong, diverse and collaborative organization. We appreciate your willingness to offer your candidacy in support of ICA, regardless of the outcome. 


I’d like to take this opportunity to encourage more of you to consider running for office or becoming more involved in ICAOpportunities have been expanding over the past years.  Many divisions havefor example, added divisional leadership positions including student or early career representative to complement existing positions of Chairs, Vice Chairs and Secretary or in some cases Secretary/Historian.  Some divisions have added less formal positions including Treasurer, Cybermistress/master or Social Media Coordinator.  All of these positions provide opportunities to better engage with ICA’s existing work, to initiate proposals to meet other needs, and to initiate new activities divisionally. 


Most of us holding leadership positions in ICA, myself included, did not begin engaging with ICA with a view to holding such a position.  We became invested as student representatives, active in division events or in aboard level working group or task force. From that engagement, we discovered the great benefit this work brought--expanding our understanding of the organization but also increasing our knowledge of other areas of communication research beyond our usual pathways. 


There are other opportunities to engage in ICA too. Many ICA membershave elected to attend our regional conferences and found new opportunities assist in supporting communication scholarship in areas of the world lesser represented in ICA. Last yearas you recallwe held regional conferences in Nairobi, Kenya and Malaysia, this year a research workshop in Entebbe, Uganda and this month our first regional conference in Mumbai, India!  Each of these events has identified a range of ICA activities that require member support, including opportunities to support conference planning or execution, to offer training workshops,to mentor early career faculty, and more.  These events of course have benefited all participants by inspiring new research networks and collaborations.  


How do you get more involved? Find the organizer of a regional conference, or ICA conference or research event and just reach out—drop an email. You will find that invitations to share your labor and expertise are likely to be met with great enthusiasm. Engagement by members in our broad ICA activities as well as through elected position is crucial to our continuing to diversify, enliven and enrich ICA as a truly international organization. 

Tags:  December 2017 

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Call for Proposals: Blue Sky Workshops

Posted By Administration, Monday, December 4, 2017


What are Blue Sky Workshops? 


Blue Sky Workshops aim to engage participants in critical discussions of current concerns within the discipline; exploration of theories, concepts, or methods; or the collective development of new research strategies or best-practice recommendations for a particular subfield of communication. These are not didactic presentations, but rather are meant to be opportunities for dialogue. Blue Skies can also be created around issues of professional development, such as writing and submitting grant proposals, developing a social media presence, or designing effective assignments.  


How do I submit a proposal for a Blue Sky Workshop? 


Proposals for Blue Sky Workshops are not bound to ICA divisions or the regular submission system, but are managed by a separate work team. Each proposal should contain: 

  • a session title,  

  • the name and contact information of the proposing session chair,  

  • a brief summary of the workshop (a 120-word abstract for the conference program) as well as  

  • a longer description of the session's topic, goals, and planned schedule (up to 500 words, to be published on the ICA website).  

  • This long description should also include requirements or instructions, if there are any, for interested participants (e.g., a condition that members interested in attending must submit their own thematic statements to the session chair prior to the conference, a suggestion of what core knowledge in a field or about a method is required for productive contribution, or an invitation to bring computers for joint text production).  


 If the number of proposals exceeds the amount of available rooms, proposals will be selected by the Conference Planner and President-Elect, Patricia Moy. Please note that Blue Skies typically take place in smaller rooms set for 15-25 people.  


*Please make note that ICA cannot guarantee a particular room set (u-shape, classroom, etc.), and that audiovisual equipment WILL NOT be available in the Blue Sky rooms. 


Who can propose a Blue Sky Workshop? 


Anyone may propose a Blue Sky Workshop, and anyone may attend a Blue Sky Workshop. Those who plan to attend a workshop should work with the workshop chair to discuss their potential role and/or contribution. Organizers' names will appear in the online, printed, and app versions of the program. 


When are proposals due? 


Proposals for Blue Sky Workshops can be submitted until 22 December 2017, 16:00 UTC to the online submission form here ( 


If you have any questions, please contact 

Tags:  December 2017 

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Membership Column

Posted By Julie Randolph & Kristine Rosa, ICA Membership Team, Monday, December 4, 2017

Membership Column: Congratulating the winning renewals!   


Earlier this fall, ICA encouraged members to renew early by 30 September for the chance to win FREE registration for the 2018 Annual Conference in Prague. Members who renewed by 30 September automatically had their names entered for a chance to win. 


We are delighted to share the three winners, randomly selected, one from each Tier*. 


Winnie N. Mbatha
Daystar U, KENYA

Maria Teresa Nicolas
U of Panamericana, MEXICO

Joseph Wasserman
West Virginia U, USA



We wish to thank every member who participated by renewing prior to the contest deadline.  As members continue to complete renewals, please know we are thrilled to have you and thankful for your ongoing commitment to the ICA community!

Thank you for being a valued ICA member and best wishes for the coming New Year.

*ICA has a triple-tiered dues structure following the UN model for A, B, and C countries, based on the World Bank's indicators of Gross National Income. Residents of B-tier countries pay 75% of the A-tier price and residents of C-tier countries pay 50% of the A-tier price.


Tags:  December 2017 

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Student Column: Calling for Student and Early Career Division and Interest Group Representatives

Posted By Julie Escurignan, U of Roehampton, Monday, December 4, 2017

Since the beginning of the academic year, the Student and Early Career Advisory Committee (SECAC) has been working to put together an up-to-date list of all Student and Early-Career Division & Interest Group Representatives (SECDR). Our goal is to make it available on our website so each and everyone of you can contact your Division(s)/Interest Group(s) representative(s) whenever you need to. The SECAC also plans on better involving all Student and Early Career Representatives into its processes, from decision making to writing in the newsletter.


SECDRs are students or early career scholars [i.e. who submitted their dissertation within the past two years] and members of the Division/Interest group. During their two-year term they participate in their Division/Interest group meetings and activities, all year long as well as during ICA annual conference. They focus on needs and opportunities related to SEC members, participate in organizing summer schools, preconferences, Blue Sky workshops, mentoring programs etc., and disseminate information to SEC members on behalf of the Division/Interest group


If our efforts have been successful most of the Student and Early Career Division and Interest Group Representatives are now known (See the list below).


If  a Division/IG isn't  represented or if you know about an error in the SECDR list, please contact us at:


From this year onward, it is required for every Division and Interest Group to have a Student and Early Career Representative. If your Division/Interest Group does not have a representative yet and you would like to apply, please email the Chair of your Division/Interest Group! 


It is compulsory for Students and Early Career Scholars to be represented in every Division/Interest Group. If you would like to serve your fellow Students and Early Career Scholars as well as ICA, do not hesitate to volunteer for the next election! 


SECDR list 


Student and Early Career Representative(s)

Children, Adolescents and the Media

ShinaAladeand Cecelia Zhou

Communication & Technology

Christine Cook

Communication History

Samantha Oliver

Environmental Communication

Adina Tamar Abeles and Jeff Hoffman

Ethnicity & Race in Communication

Tara Pixley

Feminist Scholarship

Rosemary Clark-Parsons

Game Studies

Elizabeth Newbury and Joe Wasserman

Global Communication & Social Change

Ju-Oak Kim

Health Communication


2016-18: Yen-I Lee;Zexin(Marsha) Ma andCamellaRising

2017-19: Mackenzie Greenwell, Samantha Stanley and SydneyO'ShayWallace

Information Systems

Alex Hedstrom and Anthony Almond

Instructional & Developmental Communication

Paromita Pain

Intercultural Communication

Yu Lu

Interpersonal Communication

Elizabeth Dorrance Hall

Journalism Studies

AllaRybinaand NatachaYazbeck

Language & Social Interaction

Sarah Cho

Organizational Communication

Millie Harrison

Philosophy, Theory & Critique


Political Communication

Shannon McGregor

Popular Communication

Jennifer Carlberg

Public Relations

Phuong Hoan Le


Interest Group

Student and Early Career Representative

Activism, Communication & Social Justice


Communication Science & Biology

Clare Grall

Intergroup Communication



LukaszSzulcandLik Sam Chan

Mobile Communication


Sports Communication


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Fair Use Q&A

Posted By Administration, Monday, December 4, 2017

Dear ICA,  


I’m comparing the framing of news in various venues, and want to publish my results with an online journal where I can use different media (e.g. radio, podcasts, TV, newspapers, magazines). What are the rules about how much I can use for free? I’m a grad student, and my university won’t pay for any licensing, even if I can get in touch with the outlet’s licensing arm. 





Dear Yi,  


Sounds like a great project! If you’re in the U.S., you can consider whether you have access to fair use. As you make your decisions, your best friend is ICA’s Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Communication Research. Read the introduction and the first category!  

As the Code makes clear (but you should verify), it seems you do have a strong argument for employment of fair use, the robust doctrine in U.S. copyright policy that allows free use of copyrighted material under some circumstances. There are no fixed rules or numbers for how much you should take, but there are general “rules of reason.” Judges these days—and for a couple of decades now—pay great attention to whether your use is transformative. That means using something differently than its market purpose. A radio news spot is designed to inform people at the time. You are doing something different—analyzing its news frame. Once the transformative purpose is established, judges look closely at appropriateness—how much you took in relation to the transformative purpose. Sometimes taking 100% (like with photographs) is entirely appropriate. But often you only need a short example from the work you are analyzing.  


Patricia Aufderheide for ICA 


Tags:  December 2017 

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