ICA Publication Policies and Procedures
GENERAL PUBLICATION POLICIES
The ICA publication program shall be operated in support of the basic purposes of the Association. As outlined in Article II of the ICA Bylaws, the Association is committed to advancing the scholarly study of human communication and facilitating the implementation of such study to the maximum benefit to humankind. Toward that end, the Association sustains a commitment to a program of scholarly publication and, in Article IV, Section 3, of the Bylaws, empowers the Board of Directors to approve the appointment of editors of its publications.
Article IX, Section 2(f), of the Association Bylaws provides for a Publications Committee to advise the Board of Directors in matters relevant to the Association’s publication program.
The specific responsibilities of the Board of Directors regarding oversight of the publication program are outlined in the four sections of Article X of the Bylaws:
SECTION 1. The Association engages in the preparation, production, sale, and distribution of such occasional or regular scholarly publications as the Board of Directors shall determine.
SECTION 2. The Board of Directors shall arrange for the preparation and publishing of the Association’s scholarly publications and shall determine the financial and organizational terms of the agreement.
SECTION 3. No regular publication shall be discontinued nor a regular publication added to the program without two-thirds majority of the entire Board of Directors approving such action.
SECTION 4. The editors of ICA publications are to be selected under procedures established by the ICA Board of Directors.
This publication manual serves to facilitate the execution of the Board’s duties and provides specific procedures for fulfilling these responsibilities.
The authority of the Publications Committee and the Board of Directors is applicable to all ICA scholarly publishing activities. Any change in the statements regulating publication policies, procedures, or practices shall be reviewed and recommended by the Publication Committee and approved by the Board of Directors.
Ownership of Copyright
In all contracts negotiated with publishers, copyright shall be retained by ICA, unless ICA’s Board of Directors approves other arrangements with authors and publishers in advance.
Permission to Reprint
Permission to reproduce material published by ICA for scholarly, not-for-profit purposes, and any charges associated therewith, should be at the discretion of the Executive Director.
Given the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) and institutional regulations requiring that all journal articles resulting from research supported by the NIH be posted on their publicly accessible PubMED website within 12 months of publication, ICA journals therefore will have a policy permitting NIH grantees to forward electronic copies of such articles for posting on the NIH, after a 12-month embargo, from the date of publication in an ICA publication. Similar policy regarding public access will also be considered for scholarship funded by other international organizations on a case-by-case basis.
ICA may engage in cooperative publication efforts with other associations, organizations, and commercial or university presses when (1) it is to the financial advantage of ICA to do so and/or (2) it benefits the credibility or distribution of the publication. However, under no circumstances shall ICA enter into agreements whereby the Association loses editorial control of a publication’s content.
Specific policies and procedures for all ICA publications will be prepared in accordance with the general publication policies of the Association and will be reviewed periodically by the Publications Committee and always prior to the renewal of a commercial publication contract or formal agreement of joint publication with another professional entity.
ICA and its officers and editors do not condone material that is potentially libelous, misleading, or defamatory; that plagiarizes the work of others; or that infringes on copyright. Neither will they condone violations of human-subjects standards. ICA’s officers and editors must try to balance the rights of authors with the right to protect them from possible legal action. If ICA’s editors or staff are concerned about language or data that could be legally problematic, they should first consult ICA’s Publications Committee and the 2015 ICA Procedures for Identifying and Dealing with Plagiarism. If the issue cannot be resolved at this level, the Publications Committee should then seek the advice of the ICA President and, if still unresolved, the ICA Executive Committee. If an impasse is reached such that an article cannot be rewritten or edited to address legal concerns, ICA should seek legal counsel.
As outlined in Article IX, Section 2(f), of the ICA Bylaws, the Publications Committee acts as an agent of the Board of Directors and is responsible to it. The Publications Committee Chair, on behalf of the Committee, shall submit formal written reports to the semiannual Board meetings.
The Publications Committee shall consist of three members who serve for staggered 3-year terms. Each ICA President shall appoint one new member to the Committee; the senior member with the most experience as editor shall serve as Chair. The Publications Committee shall monitor and make recommendations concerning the publication needs of the membership and the adequacy of existing publications to fill those needs. The Committee shall also nominate editors for all official ICA scholarly publications.
The Publications Committee shall convene regularly at the Association’s annual convention. Time, place, and agenda of the meeting shall be announced by the Publications Committee Chair in the ICA Newsletter published immediately prior to each convention. ICA members shall be encouraged to attend, thus ensuring broad-based input from all areas and interests across the Association.
The Association currently publishes six serials:
Human Communication Research; Journal of Communication; Communication Theory; Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication; Communication, Culture, & Critique; Annals of the International Communication Association.
Editorial policies of ICA’s serials are determined by the Association through the policies of its Board of Directors. Editorial policies are not controlled by individual editorial decisions. If an editor wishes to redirect the editorial policy of a particular journal, he or she must submit a written petition to the Publications Committee for consideration.
Editorial policy concerns the content, focus, and substance of the manuscripts published and usually does not concern procedures followed in manuscript review and evaluation. More specific editorial guidelines are included in the second part of this document. Current policies of the six serials follow:
Human Communication Research
Human Communication Research is devoted to advancing knowledge and understanding about human symbolic activities. Manuscripts reporting original research, methodologies relevant to the study of human communication, critical syntheses of research, and theoretical and philosophical perspectives on human communicative activity are encouraged. The journal maintains a broad behavioral and social scientific focus but reflects no particular methodological or substantive bias.
Journal of Communication
The Journal of Communication publishes bimonthly articles and book reviews that examine a broad range of issues in communication theory, research, practice, and policy. Because the Journal seeks to be a
general forum for communication scholarship, ICA is especially interested in research whose significance crosses disciplinary and subfield boundaries.
Communication Theory publishes research articles, theoretical essays, and reviews on topics of broad theoretical interest from across the range of communication studies. Essays, regardless of topic or methodological approach, must make a significant contribution to communication theory. Communication Theory recognizes that approaches to theory development and explication are diverse. No single approach or set of approaches is privileged.
Communication, Culture, & Critique
Communication, Culture, & Critique publishes critical, interpretive, and qualitative research examining the role of communication and cultural criticism in today’s world. The journal welcomes high quality research and analyses from diverse theoretical and methodological approaches from all fields of communication, media and cultural studies. Sites for enquiry include all kinds of text- and print-based media, as well as broadcast, still and moving images and electronic modes of communication including the internet and mobile telephony.
Annals of the International Communication Association
The Annals publishes reviews of the literature and meta-analysis in each of the areas represented by the divisions and interest groups of the ICA. The reviews will provide syntheses of the available literature and critical assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. The editor may consult with representatives of the ICA divisions and chooses topics to be reviewed on a yearly basis. In addition to competitive, peer-reviewed reviews and curated manuscripts representing topical foci, the editor may invite reviews of communication pedagogy and books in special sections of the developing Annals of the ICA.
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication
The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication is an online bimonthly that publishes articles that contribute to the field of computer-mediated communication. No one discipline or single methodology is viewed as inherently superior. Research may be based in any of the social sciences. Articles frequently join theoretical analysis with empirical investigation, and/or incorporate demonstration or simulation. Reviews, syntheses, and meta-analyses of prior research are also published.
In addition to the above-named journals, the ICA has identified journals with an “Affiliate” status. This recognition is voted on by the ICA board in recognition of journals published in non-English languages supportive of regional scholarship of interest to its membership.
ICA provides financial assistance to the editorial offices of official Association publications in order to sustain the editorial integrity of the publication program and to ensure that the financial limitations of prospective host institutions do not weaken the pool of potential editors.
The amount of university support shall be determined annually in the ICA budgeting process based on the budget needs submitted by each editor. Editors are expected to obtain some support from their universities during their editorships, with ICA supplementing that support as needed. These amounts are intended to help offset departmental and university support for the journal and are not expected to fully compensate the editor or host institution for costs incurred.
In the case of new publications, start-up funds may be provided to enable these publications to compete adequately in the marketplace. Once publications are firmly established in the field, the amount of annual funding provided to support editorial operations beyond the base provision shall be reduced accordingly.
Requests for budgets in excess of the limits established for each publication may be submitted, but they will be approved only in extraordinary circumstances and with consideration to the overall financial health of the Association.
Appointment of Editors
Editors of all ICA serial publications and commissioned books and monographs shall be nominated by the Publications Committee and appointed to four-year terms by the Board of Directors. The Publications Committee, as a regular part of its responsibilities, shall periodically review the length of editorial terms.
Editors of ICA publications should reflect and enhance the diversity of the Association in interest, gender, ethnicity, national origin, and regional representation. The Association should live up to its name and be truly “international.”
The Publications Committee will review nominations for editors and submit a recommendation to the Board of Directors, along with documentation to support the nomination. The Board of Directors will consider the Committee’s nomination and either appoint the Committee’s choice, appoint another nominee, or ask the Committee to continue its search.
The Executive Director serves as Editor of the ICA Newsletter. Although the Publications Committee maintains oversight of the ICA Newsletter, a separate Newsletter Committee governs routine procedures related to its production.
No person should hold more than one editorial position within the Association at any one time, nor be permitted to succeed herself/himself in the editorial post. However, in the event of extraordinary
circumstances that merit special consideration, the Board of Directors may suspend these policy restrictions by a two-thirds vote of its members.
Editors must be members of the International Communication Association at the time of their nomination, appointment, and throughout their editorial terms.
Editors are expected to attend the annual ICA convention and to participate in programs or panels relevant to their editorial tasks. Attendance at the annual meeting facilitates fulfillment of the editor’s responsibility to meet with potential authors and encourage manuscript submission. Such attendance is seen as integral to the editor’s own professional development and, hence, is not funded by ICA.
Editors are responsible for familiarizing themselves thoroughly with ICA Publication Policies and Procedures and abiding by them.
Removal of Editors From Office
In the event that an editor is jeopardizing the reputation of the publication and/or the Association by failure to adhere to policies, procedures, or established schedules, the Executive Committee, acting on behalf of the Board of Directors and with the advice and recommendation of the Publications Committee, may remove an editor from office and appoint a replacement editor for the remainder of the editorial term or a specified time period not to exceed the remainder plus one full term. The Executive Committee is empowered to make substitute editorial appointments in the event of emergency, such as incapacity of an editor while in office. Such appointments are made with the advice and recommendation of the Publications Committee and should be accompanied by a specific set of arrangements for transferring editorial responsibility and support functions.
Each editor has sole responsibility for structuring, soliciting, and choosing his or her editorial review board. Editorial board members should reflect and enhance the diversity of submissions to the journal, the various constituencies of ICA, and the quality of judgment necessary to insure the publication of excellent scholarship. In their selection of the editorial board, editors have the responsibility to seek out ways to demonstrate the commitment of ICA to “internationalization.”
Standards and procedures for the review of manuscripts are at the discretion of the editor. Editors are expected to treat each submission from an author in a consistent manner, following best practices of peer- review. Submissions should be reviewed by experts in the field and reviews completed within 12 weeks of submission.
Social Science Citation Index
Editors should be mindful of the annual rankings of ICA serials in the Social Science Citation Index and uphold the highest standards for scholarship published in ICA journals in a continual effort to better our standings.
The final acceptance or rejection of individual manuscripts and the timing of their publication is at the sole discretion of the editor. Input from members of the editorial board is advisory and editors may make decisions consistent with that advice. Editors may not place final decisions regarding acceptance or rejection in the hands of individual board members, associate editors, or any other group.
Editors are responsible for familiarizing themselves with all aspects of contracts governing their journal and for understanding these contractual agreements.
To assure timely distribution of the publication and to protect the integrity and reputation of ICA’s publication program, editors must abide by publication schedules established by ICA headquarters and production departments of commercial publishers with whom ICA has contracted.
Editors may not exceed contractual page allocations or budget limitations established by the Association or publisher. Editors should process submissions in a manner that assures timely publication of articles.
Editors may not change the graphic layout or structural features of journals without the written approval of the Publications Committee. Requests for changes in cover color/art, graphic layout, content headings, type size/format, or other production characteristics must be submitted to, and approved by, the Publications Committee before any changes can be implemented by ICA headquarters or a commercial publisher responsible for the production of an official ICA scholarly publication.
The ICA Board of Directors has directed that the editorial style of all ICA scholarly publications be governed by the latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It is the responsibility of the editorial office to see that each manuscript follows APA style. Manuscripts will not be rejected solely based on issues of style, but will need to adhere to the style guidelines before final publication.
Transition Between Editors
Incoming Editors are obliged to publish any papers formally accepted by the previous Editor; however, the Outgoing Editor should aim to transfer no more than two issues’ worth of formally accepted papers to the Incoming Editor.
Reports by the Editor
Annual report. Each editor is expected to submit an annual report to the Publications Committee and the Board of Directors that may include any statements or recommendations that the editor chooses to bring before the Board, but must include the following:
1. Summary of demographic characteristics of manuscript authors to include first author’s gender, nationality of institution, and topic of article, as well as information on whether manuscript were accepted, returned for revision, or rejected for each of these categories.
2. Summary of intellectual categories (e.g., cultural study, theoretical essay, experimental investigation or other designated categories appropriate to the publication) represented by the manuscripts submitted and published.
3. Summary of review process including (a) number of manuscripts received, (b) time required for editorial decisions, (c) time between acceptance and publication, (d) number of revisions submitted for publication, (e) overall acceptance rate.
Financial report. Editors are required to submit detailed annual financial reports describing and justifying the use of ICA funds from the previous fiscal year. This report should accompany the request for funding for the coming fiscal year. This report must include a complete listing of specific disbursements (actual and projected) of ICA funds and a cover letter from the department chairperson (or financial officer) testifying to the accuracy of the accounting. ICA reserves the right to conduct an audit of the account to be certain that its monies are being spent to advance ICA’s publication agenda.
All manuscripts submitted to ICA publications must be original works that (a) credit all authors, (b) acknowledge sources and supporting material, and (c) identify previous publication of the manuscript in an earlier form. The place, time, and form of the previous publication, and whether the present material duplicates or is substantially different than the earlier presentation, must be made explicit in a cover letter accompanying the manuscript submission. ICA does not publish articles that have been previously published in substantially the same form.
Any manuscript submitted to an ICA publication must not be simultaneously considered by another publication. If extraordinary circumstances call for simultaneous submission, the ICA editor should be informed by the author(s). Decisions regarding the originality of and/or appropriateness of a submitted manuscript will be rendered by the editor. Evidence of alleged misconduct or ethical violations will be reported to the Publications Committee.
The editorial office will provide no information regarding the status of a submission to anyone other than the author (or a person the author designates in writing) of a manuscript, book review, or other material submitted to ICA for publication.
RECOGNITION OF EDITORS
The Association shall reward editors’ generous donation of time and expertise with appropriate forms of recognition.
ADOPTION OR CREATION OF SERIAL PUBLICATIONS
All proposals for adoption of an existing journal or creation of a new scholarly publication shall be submitted to the Publications Committee for review, evaluation, and recommendation.
PUBLICATION CONTRACTS: SOLICITATION AND NEGOTIATION
The Executive Director shall solicit and negotiate all ICA publication contracts for consideration and approval by the Board of Directors.
BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS
The Publications Committee is responsible for the nomination of authors and editors of any non-serial ICA-sponsored books and monographs, with final appointments as the responsibility of the Board of Directors. For an edited volume, the Publications Committee nominates and the Board of Directors appoints only the general editor. The editor has full authority to name all authors, associate editors, and other personnel needed to assist in the development of the publication. Any editor of an ICA-sponsored monograph or book must be a member of the Association at the time of appointment and publication.
Specific ICA book and monograph procedures shall be devised on a case-by-case basis, depending on whether the work is to be published in-house or by a commercial publisher. For each publication produced in-house, all matters concerned with production are the responsibility of the Executive Director of the Association. These will be spelled out in a publication agreement document signed by the author or editor, Executive Director, and the President. For each publication handled by a commercial publisher, a publication agreement document will be developed cooperatively by the Executive Director, the nominated Editor or Author, and the representative official of the publishing company. The agreement shall then be submitted to the Executive Committee for review and approval and, if approved, signed on behalf of the Association by the Executive Director and the President.
ICA should not normally offer honoraria or royalties to authors for publications sponsored by the Association. However, ICA may provide partial reimbursement for out-of-pocket costs to the individual or department involved, not to exceed 75% of the royalties generated by the publication. Under special circumstances, the Executive Committee may approve requests for honoraria or royalties to authors.
The Executive Director shall provide an annual report to the Board of Directors on the marketing, inventory, and sales of all ICA books and monographs whose distribution is handled by the Association. A file copy of any publication authorized by ICA shall be deposited at ICA headquarters.
Specific responsibilities of authors/editors are outlined in the procedures section of this document.
PUBLICATIONS BY ICA UNITS
All publication activities, other than newsletter publication, shall be coordinated with the Publications Committee. The publication of any journal, monograph, or book bearing the name of ICA, one of its divisions or interest groups, or other ICA units must have prior approval of the Board of Directors, following consideration by the Publications Committee and its recommendation to the Board.
ICA divisions, interest groups, committees, and task forces are encouraged to use the ICA Newsletter as a medium of communication with their members, although allocated funds may be used for unit newsletters, if deemed necessary.
ENDORSEMENT OR SPONSORSHIP OF NON-ICA PUBLICATIONS
It is not the policy of ICA to endorse, sponsor, or support publications of any type that have been generated by initiatives outside the Association. Exceptions to this practice may be made upon the recommendation of the Publications Committee and approval by the Board of Directors. Nonpublication products that ICA is asked to endorse or market must be sent to ICA headquarters for evaluation by the Executive Director. Products recommended by the Executive Director to the Board of Directors for endorsement and/or marketing must be approved by the Board before endorsement or marketing may take place.
Prior to action by the Board of Directors, the President may appoint a task force to evaluate the quality of the product and its suitability for Association sponsorship or marketing.
Approved and adopted by the ICA Board of Directors, January 2015.
ICA Publication Policies and Procedures
REVISIONS OF ICA PUBLICATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
The Publications Committee will review the content of this document at least annually and, where appropriate, recommend changes to the Board of Directors. Changes may also be recommended at any time by the Executive Director, the Executive Committee, or any member of the Board. ICA headquarters will maintain this document on the ICA website and will regularly make its existence and availability known to the Association membership, as well as to members being considered for the editorship or authorship of an ICA publication.
GENERAL PUBLICATION POLICIES
Editors of ICA scholarly publications are expected to operate within the guidelines adopted by the ICA Board of Directors as outlined in this ICA Publications Policy and Procedures Guide.
The Procedures Guide will provide information and define the process by which ICA’s publication agenda is realized.
Nomination/Appointment of Editors
ICA’s editors are nominated by the Publications Committee and appointed by the Board of Directors. The Publications Committee encourages a wide breadth of qualified scholars to apply and seeks the advice of ICA’s intellectual leaders in the recruitment process in an effort to appoint editors who reflect the diversity of the Association in interest, gender, and ethnicity.
The nomination and application procedure, determined by the Publications Committee, typically follows these steps:
1. An open call for nominations and applications is published in the ICA Newsletter (and other appropriate outlets) well in advance of the completion of the editor’s term, usually around the beginning of the third year of the four-year term.
2. The Publications Committee might also solicit editorial nominations from members of the journal’s existing editorial board and/or may encourage division and interest group chairs to make the opening known to their members, who may then apply on an individual basis.
3. Current editors should encourage outstanding members of their editorial boards and/or
frequent contributors to self-nominate for vacant editorships.
4. ICA policy does allow “editorial teams to be considered for the Editor-in-Chief role.
5. All editors using an electronic manuscript submission system are expected to name Associate Editors and/or an editorial board that is international in scope representative of the membership of the International Communication Association.
6. Nominations and applications are submitted to the Publications Committee Chair with the following supporting documentation:
a. Statement of nomination or application including a statement outlining the candidate’s plans and goals and expressing a willingness to serve if appointed.
b. A current vita.
c. References of support from persons qualified to assess the candidate’s ability to edit the publication in question.
d. Letter from the responsible university administrator stating that adequate host institutional support will be provided, including released time, editorial workspace, support personnel, and financial contributions to ensure the successful operation of the editorial office.
The appointment process requires the Publications Committee to review nominations and applications and to make a recommendation to the Board of Directors. After consideration, the Board will ratify the recommendation, appoint another nominee, or ask the Committee to continue its search.
Editors of each serial publication are expected to submit an annual budget by March 1 of each year as part of ICA’s budget planning process (ICA operates on a October through September fiscal year). Editors may have access to budgets of previous/current editors as needed to formulate a budget request for the following year.
Editors are expected to obtain some support from their universities during their editorships, with ICA supplementing that support as needed. This support is intended to help offset departmental and university support for the journal and not to fully compensate the editor or host institution for costs incurred. The amount of annual university support from ICA shall be based on the budget needs submitted by each editor. Financial support of the journals is considered a reimbursement for actual expenses approved by the Board of Directors. Financial support for journal activities is not a grant or stipend to the editor or the editor’s institution.
Budget requests should document the nature and extent of anticipated expenses (e.g., postage, copying, telephone, office supplies) in detail. The maximum reimbursement budgets for the editors are determined yearly by the Board of Directors upon recommendation by the Publications Committee in consultation with the Chair of the Finance Committee.
Budget limits are based on the understood functions of the various editorial offices. Communication Yearbook (and the Annals of the International Communication Association to succeed it) is guided by an annual review model. Therefore, fewer unsolicited manuscripts must be processed through the stages of blind review and revision, as is the standard practice of Human Communication Research and Communication Theory. The Journal of Communication is significantly larger than Human Communication Research and Communication Theory, processes more manuscripts, and has a much more developed international orientation. Factors such as these and others peculiar to each journal are considered in the budgeting process.
Formal reimbursement requests must be submitted by the editors before June 15 of each year. Requests for reimbursement must be accompanied by receipts or other appropriate documentation of expenses incurred. Failure to document expenditures could result in rejection of the reimbursement request. Funds may not be carried forward to the next fiscal year.
In extraordinary circumstances, requests exceeding the budgeted amounts will be considered by the Publications Committee and the Board of Directors; any such request must be accompanied by detailed justification.
Editorial Responsibilities and Procedures
As outlined in the policy section of this document, the editor has responsibility for appointing the editorial review board, establishing review standards and procedures, and accepting or rejecting individual manuscripts.
It is also the editor’s responsibility to determine the need for and specific responsibilities of editorial assistants, if any, and to hire one or more graduate students to fulfill these duties, outlining in detail the responsibilities of the position. The editor supervises the work of editorial assistant(s), but bears ultimate responsibility for the operation of the editorial office.
Review procedures of ICA serial publications generally include (1) peer review, (2) multiple reviewers, (3) blind review, (4) written feedback to submitters from reviewers and editors, (5)
sharing of reviews among reviewers, (6) acknowledgment of receipt of manuscripts, and (7) prompt response (within 12 weeks) to submissions. Variance from these practices should be undertaken only after consultation with the Publications Committee.
Division of Editorial Responsibilities
Responsibilities of the Editorial Office:
To bear ultimate responsibility for adherence to APA style, academic validity, and
scientific accuracy of materials appearing in ICA serials.
To formulate and articulate a direction for the journal/yearbook during the term of the
editorship that is in keeping with the mission established by the ICA Board of Directors
and Publications Committee.
To determine content of the journal through selection and active solicitation of scholarly
articles that serve to fulfill that mission.
To appoint (and mentor) a volunteer editorial staff for editorial continuity.
To establish an editorial board and procedures for consistent peer review of all
manuscripts and to handle the peer review process through all revisions.
To negotiate institutional support for establishing an onsite editorial office with support
staff for handling manuscripts and relevant correspondence.
To establish special issues, if desired, on specific topics; determine guest editors; issue
calls for papers; and oversee the work of guest editors in assembling the issue to ensure
that established standards are met.
To ensure that tone and content of articles meet appropriate academic standards and to
uphold the use of APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 6th ed.), as adopted for ICA serial publications.
To communicate with authors on all issues of content, accuracy, and relevance, and
resolve any major substance issues with authors.
To review articles for language that could be legally problematic (i.e., potentially
libelous), misleading, or inflammatory.
To oversee the work of review editors, commentary editors, etc., to ensure that they
adhere to these same guidelines.
To review articles for language or data that could be legally problematic due to concerns
over libel, plagiarism, copyright infringement, or human subject violations; to work
within ICA’s procedures for adjudication such matters.
Once article has been accepted for publication:
To coordinate with the production office on issues of mutual relevance.
To obtain and provide the publisher (as applicable) with signed copyright documents
from each author when manuscripts for the issue are sent to the production office.
To adhere to the production schedule established by the production office (in concert with the publisher) in order to meet fiscal and contractual obligations and ensure timely publication and fairness to authors and advertisers.
To check for errors in factual and statistical information contained in the articles, to query authors about missing information and pursue author queries until resolved, and to verify that all internal references within an article are included in the reference list and vice versa and that all reference information is both complete and correct.
To make sure that the author has made all agreed-upon changes in the manuscript and provided a disk file that reflects these changes.
To obtain biographical information on each author and provide a brief biographical sketch to accompany the article.
To obtain camera-ready hard copies and electronic files of all figures and artwork used in the article.
To provide the production office and publisher with a table of contents and contact information (including mail and email addresses and phone and fax numbers) for all authors.
To provide the production office with clean hard copies and disk versions of each article and front matter in MSWord, along with artwork in usable form, on the dates outlined in the production schedule.
Upon receiving page proofs from production office (about 2 months after submission):
To proofread pages for typographical, formatting, and other errors.
To check tables and figures for placement and accuracy.
Responsibilities of the Production Office:
To coordinate with the production office on issues of mutual relevance.
To copyedit manuscripts for grammar and typographical accuracy.
To ensure adherence to APA style.
To format articles into that journal’s style.
To send proofs of each article to first authors with corrections made and queries noted—
offprint order forms are also sent at this time.
To make authors’ corrections and send corrected proofs to the editorial office.
To make editorial-office corrections and send proofs to publisher for approval.
To make final corrections, if any, and prepare PDFs in dictated style for printer.
Prepare PDFs in dictated style for OUP website.
To review articles for language or data that could be legally problematic due to concerns
over libel, plagiarism, copyright infringement, human subject violations; to first express these concerns to the journal’s editor; if an impasse is reached such that articles cannot be rewritten or edited to address possible legal concerns, to work within ICA’s procedures for adjudication of such matters.
Book/Monograph Authors’ and Editors’ Responsibilities
The primary author or editor of a book or monograph is responsible for all scholarly and academic aspects of the work. He or she is also responsible for:
1. Ensuring that the work meets the highest standards of scholarly and professional quality.
2. Ensuring the originality of all material in the work for which copyright clearance has not been obtained.
3. Obtaining copyright clearance for any non-original material (quotations, charts, figures, photographs, and other copyrightable work) included that is covered by copyright. If there is a fee for any permission, it must be approved by the ICA Executive Director or commercial publisher before agreement for use is signed. Copies of all copyright clearances must be filed at ICA headquarters or office of the commercial publisher with the final draft of the manuscript.
4. Running an ICA copyright statement in all material published by ICA: “Copyright ©20XX by the International Communication Association. All rights reserved. No portion of the contents may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the International Communication Association.”
5. Assigning copyright for the book or monograph to ICA. The author/editor is responsible for contacting the Executive Director to obtain appropriate copyright assignment forms. Completed forms must be returned to ICA headquarters for filing and distribution to the appropriate copyright office and the commercial publisher.
6. Meeting all deadlines for copy, corrected galleys, and corrected page proofs set by the publisher.
7. Avoiding unnecessary corrections to galleys. Once galleys have been corrected and re- turned to the publisher, additional corrections on page proofs that have not been made necessary by the publisher resulting in changes between the galley and page proof stage are chargeable to the author/editor.
8. Including the following sentence in the policy statement or preface to the work: The contents of this publication are the responsibility of its author [or authors] and do not necessarily
reflect the official policies or positions of the International Communication Association or its members, officers, or staff.
9. All editors or authors of ICA books and monographs must sign a form acknowledging that they have read the statement of editorial responsibilities and have agreed to abide by the provisions set forth.
Publication Contracts: Solicitation and Negotiation
The Executive Director will solicit and negotiate bids for publishing ICA serials on behalf of the ICA Board of Directors, who consider and approve publishing contracts.
When the Board of Directors has determined that ICA should enter into a renewal contract with a commercial publisher, university press, or other professional entity, the Executive Director, in consultation with the President and Publications Committee Chair, will negotiate the renewal process, with final approval by the ICA Board of Directors.
When the Board of Directors has determined that ICA should solicit bids from different contractors for publishing one or more of its serials, the Executive Director will draft a formal Request for Proposals (RFP), make it available for review and approval by the Executive Committee, distribute the RFP, and collect all bids. The Executive Director will then distribute copies to the Executive Committee and Publications Committee for review. The Publications Committee will assess each bid in terms of the publisher’s ability to satisfy the requirements of the Association’s publications program. With the advice of the Publications Committee, the Executive Committee will (1) evaluate the submissions; (2) select a publisher of choice, and (3) identify those items needing revision, if any, in order to fully satisfy the needs of the Association.
The Executive Director will enter into formal negotiations with the publisher on behalf of the Association, keeping the Executive Committee apprised of progress in the negotiation process and seeking its counsel as needed. When the contract has been completed to the satisfaction of the Executive Committee, the President and Executive Director will sign the contract as the official signatories of the Association.
Adoption or Creation of Serial Publications
Proposing New Journals
Proposals for adoption of an existing journal or creation of a new scholarly publication shall be submitted to the Publications Committee for review, evaluation, and recommendation.
Proposals must include a detailed editorial statement, a rationale for its inclusion in ICA’s publication program, and a detailed financial statement and marketing analysis. The Publications Committee will evaluate the proposal on criteria that include but are not limited to the following: consistency with ICA’s publication objectives; scholarly needs of the membership; financial viability. The Publications Committee shall forward its recommendation to the ICA Executive Committee for action.
The Executive Committee is empowered to authorize a formal feasibility study. The feasibility study team shall be comprised of the Finance Committee Chair, Publications Committee Chair, and the Executive Director. Should this study conclude that the creation or adoption of a new journal would be in the best interests of the Association, the original proposal, along with the recommendation of the Publications Committee and the results of the feasibility study, shall be submitted to the Board of Directors for action.
Approved and adopted by the ICA Board of Directors, January 2015.
Procedures for Identifying and Dealing with Plagiarism
DEFINITIONS OF PLAGIARISM
Given the complexities involved in academic research, it must be recognized that a clear definition of plagiarism maybe impossible. Indeed, as identified in the original report, there are many different forms of plagiarism. The World Association of Medical Editors describes it as “the use of others’ published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source. The intent and effect of plagiarism is to mislead the reader as to the contributions of the plagiarizer.”
SELF-PLAGIARISM (or duplicate publications)
Self-plagiarism involves an author presenting earlier published material as original and new. Self-plagiarism is often not an issue, but it must be transparent and limited. A critical issue involved in self-plagiarism is the degree to which it is clear whether the author is drawing from earlier manuscripts/research. Covert self-plagiarism occurs when the author is not transparent when drawing from earlier manuscripts or research; this can constitute a serious ethical transgression.
Types of covert self-plagiarism include:
Covert Duplicate Publication / Presentation – Submitting a paper to a journal or conference which had been previously published in a journal or conference proceedings.
Covert Redundant Publication – Occurs when some portion of previously published data is used again in a new publication with no indication that the data had been published earlier.
Covert text recycling – Reusing portions of previously published text in a new publication without a reference to the origin of the earlier published text.
Covert fragmented publication (salami strategy) – Occurs when a complex study is broken down into two or more components and each component is analyzed and published as a separate paper.
ASSESSING THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PLAGIARISM
ICA editors and the PC should take into account the following factors:
Extent of the plagiarized material
Originality of the plagiarized materials
Context or section of the paper – for example, the methods section of a social science manuscript
is more likely to include standardized language which aids in precision and clarity.
Experience with English language
The seriousness of self-plagiarism is more difficult to determine. Self-plagiarism is only considered serious if it is covert in nature.
Covert text recycling is:
acceptable without sanctions in the range of 1-10% as long as it is confined to generic parts of the manuscript (e.g., the Method section) that are not tied to the main contribution of the manuscript; to be treated as “minor plagiarism” if the recycled text ranges between approx. 11% and29%; to be treated as “covert redundant publication” if more than 30% are recycled. Available sanctions should depend on the severity of the transgression, but can typically be determined by the editor without a formal investigation.
Covert redundant publications and covert augmented publications where papers with over 30% of pre-published text or data are submitted to an ICA journal or an ICA conference should be sanctioned in the same way as ordinary “major plagiarism” is sanctioned (see below). Authors must explicitly acknowledge any other articles reporting data from the same data set, including a citation in the manuscript.
Covert duplicate publications (or covert duplicate conference paper submissions) where an entire pre-published paper is submitted should be sanctioned similarly to ordinary “major plagiarism” is sanctioned (see below).
Procedures for processing claims follow those outlined in the INFORMS (2009) Guidelines for Copyright and Plagiarism. They are reproduced here with small ICA-specific adjustments:
The editors and their editorial offices are the primary means of detecting misconduct in manuscripts submitted to their publications. Complainants shall bring cases of suspected author misconduct to the attention of the editors and provide the following relevant documentation:
Full contact details of the complainant and information on the relationship to the allegation (e.g., author of plagiarized work, reviewer or editor of plagiarizing work). Sometimes, of course, the complainant may be the editor.
Written detailed description of the alleged misconduct, including full citations to the plagiarizing paper and to those papers plagiarized.
The editor shall review all evidence and make a preliminary judgment regarding the claim. As part of the editor’s deliberation, it is required that the authors be contacted and provided an opportunity to rebut the charge.
The editor presents findings to all authors and asks them to respond; asks the authors if all or only some of them are responsible for the plagiarized sections, decides if any authors were unaware of the plagiarism and, if so, whether they are in any way responsible for the behavior of the other authors;
Minor instances of plagiarism in submission that have not yet been published can be resolved by the editor alone, choosing the appropriate responses as outlined in the section on “Sanctions” (below).
All other cases that seem to justify a charge of plagiarism shall be forwarded to the chair of the PC for further review. The chair of the PC will share the materials with the PC and the PC will make a final determination. Members of the PC who may have a conflict of interest will be recused from the deliberations. In this instance, the chair of the PC will appoint a replacement for the excused member of the PC.
The PC shall first contact the author(s) in writing and ask for a response to the charge, including detail of the relative contribution of multiple authors to any specific problematic sections of the article. Based on the response, the PC may obtain additional information, which may include a review of the manuscript in question by experts to help determine the level of plagiarism. Based on these deliberations, the PC shall determine whether the charge is to be upheld and, if so, the sanction which is to be enforced against the authors. Sanctions may be applied unevenly in the case of multiple authors (see detailed section on “sanctions” below).
If the charge is upheld, once the finding and the sanction is determined, the PC chair will communicate the results in writing to the author(s). The author must at this point also be informed of the right to appeal within 30 days, and the procedures for doing so. If the charge is not upheld, the process ends and no further actions are taken. In particular, the results are only communicated to those persons already involved in the process.
The decision of the PC may be appealed within 30 days by written notification to the ICA Executive Director. In this case, the PC chair and the ICA Executive Committee will form an appeal committee. In the unlikely case where a member of the ICA Executive Committee is also
a member of the PC, that member will be recused from the deliberations. The appeal committee will review the charges and make a final determination. The result will be communicated back to the author(s) within 60 days of receipt of the appeal notification.
If a determination of plagiarism has been made, and after any appeals are exhausted, the PC will determine appropriate steps, including notification of the employer(s) of the author(s), notification of other ICA editors, and if the paper has appeared in print, public notification to the readership. Notification of employer(s) and/or public notifications will come jointly from the Publications Committee and the ICA president. Specific sanctions to be considered are outlined below.
Informing an author’s institution is generally considered to be a relatively serious action to take. However, we endorse the statement of Wager (2011, p. 6): “It may have serious consequences for the researcher concerned. Editors therefore tend to be reluctant to inform institutions except in serious cases of misconduct and when they feel they have well-founded suspicions of wrong- doing. However, if contacting an institution is viewed, not as a potential punishment for the author, but as an attempt to engage the institution in dialogue and work together to prevent future problems, one might argue that editors should contact institutions more often and definitely in cases where they feel junior researchers have received inadequate training or guidance, since this is something the institution may be able to remedy.” Given the procedures outlined above, in no case would we expect an editor to contact the institution. Instead, such contact would come from the ICA publications committee and/or the ICA President.
Our policy on confidentiality follows the procedures adopted by ACM (2010) which are reproduced here with minor ICA-specific adjustments:
All aspects of an investigation will be treated with the utmost regard for confidentiality. The names and contacts of the person(s) making the claim and their relationship to the allegation (e.g., author of plagiarized work, reviewer or editor of plagiarizing work) will be kept confidential and used only for the purpose and duration of the investigation. However, in order to ensure timely and effective resolution, details of a claim will be circulated to individuals on a need-to-know basis. As part of the investigation, it may be necessary for ICA to contact current and/or past employers of the authors. ICA, at its discretion, may decide to inform the general ICA membership of the plagiarism investigation. However, during the investigation, under no circumstances will ICA disclose any individual author’s name, paper titles, referees, or any other personal or specific information regarding a plagiarism claim to the general membership. If a final decision is that plagiarism has occurred in a published work, ICA reserves the right to
publish whatever full details are necessary to maintain the integrity of the scientific literature (e.g., if it is determined that the same research findings have been published multiple times).
MINOR PLAGIARISM IN SUBMITTED MANUSCRIPT:
Editors decide on their own judgment of the situation without having to involve the Publications Committee:
Editor (with cc: to ICA Director of Publications) writes to authors letter of explanation and education where there appears to be genuine misunderstanding of principles, and attaches ICA’s General Statement Of Standards (on website) and Plagiarism Policy (this document) and Guidelines on Ethical Obligations by Authors (Appendix A); and
Editor instructs authors to rewrite plagiarized text / to credit sources properly / to identify quotations properly (as part of revise-and-resubmit process); or
Editor rejects paper based on violations of ICA’s General Statement Of Standards and Plagiarism Policy; in accompanying letter, editor points out that minor plagiarism has been detected and advises the authors that this should be corrected before resubmission (rejection but new submission possible); or
Editor rejects paper based on violations of ICA’s General Statement Of Standards and Plagiarism Policy, no resubmission possible; in accompanying letter of reprimand the editor issues a warning as to future conduct; letter is copied to chair of the Publications Committee although there will be no formal investigation coordinated by Publications Committee.
MINOR PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED ARTICLE:
The Publications Committee will be involved in the decision process, as outlined above. Subsequently, and depending on the extent of the problem:
Editor publishes a notice of plagiarism or a corrigendum in the printed and digital version of the journal; or
Editor requires author to publish an apology in which the misrepresentation is corrected (for instance by noting that text was used without appropriate acknowledgment). If the author(s) are not willing to apologize, they may be banned from submitting to ICA publications for a period of time determined jointly by the editor and the PC committee.
MAJOR PLAGIARISM IN SUBMITTED MANUSCRIPT:
The Publications Committee will be involved in the decision process, as outlined above. If it has been determined that major plagiarism has occurred, the following procedures will be followed:
Editor issues a letter of reprimand with a warning as to future conduct (cc’ed to chair of the Publications Committee and ICA Director of Publications), and rejects the article; or/and
Editor demands in addition a letter of apology to ICA (for its own records) and/or to the plagiarized authors; or/and
Publications Committee contacts the institutions of the authors considered to be directly involved with the plagiarism (or as supervisors/mentors should take responsibility for it); or/and
Committee imposes further sanctions such as banning authors from submitting to the journal for a period of time; or banning authors from submitting to any ICA journals or conferences for a period of time
MAJOR PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED ARTICLE:
The Publications Committee will be involved in the decision process. Subsequently:
Same as for submitted article, then retract article or publication of a notice, corrigendum or erratum or publication of an editorial giving full details of the misconduct; and/or
Refusal to accept future submissions from the individual, unit, or institution responsible for the misconduct, for a stated period; and/or
Other form of penalty as decided by committee.
For conference submissions, the program planner takes on the role of editor as outlined earlier in this document.
MINOR PLAGIARISM IN CONFERENCE SUBMISSION: Manuscript is automatically rejected; no further investigation or sanction
MAJOR PLAGIARISM IN CONFERENCE SUBMISSION:
Manuscript is automatically rejected; same sanctions as for major plagiarism in submitted articles. ICA Director of Publications is informed of the case and keeps a record.
The more drastic sanctions may be reserved for cases that show multiple violations and for authors who show repeated misconduct.
Approved and adopted by the ICA Board of Directors, January 2015.